Getting your website to rank on the internet does not take as long as you think. There is only 3 major areas of your site that you need to concern yourself with when optimizing for search engines like google. As long as you have optimized these parts correctly, you need to progress in the search engines fairly easily.
Keywords would be the key to SEO. The first thing an SEO company would do is definitely an analysis of your site to find out what keyword category you fall under. This way, they are able to get an estimate of much search traffic you could get if you choose to use certain keywords in your site. Not every keyword gets the same amount of traffic would you like to make sure that you choose the keywords which are best for your business, but still high traffic.
Now that you've your keywords, let's use them. Submissions are the new way the top search engines like google are beginning to rank websites. Most search engines do not review your site just like a viewer might do but they look at the words in your page. Google spiders gather all the words that you have entered on your pages or pictures that you might have posted that have titles and alternate text in them. They measure how much density each words has plus they make you rank based on how often those words came up in your site compared to a competitor's site. Make sure that you have ample keyword rich content on your page so that the spiders will see you as relevant for a certain topic or keyword.
Some people say that links are going away however i don't believe they can ever really go completely away. Linking has been a way that search engines have ranked sites for years. That's how they can tell how popular someone is or if they are an expert on a certain topic or product. When you get links from popular websites that have a higher page rank, you receive power from that. If you're able to get power in the highest ranking websites online, you'll achieve greater rankings in the search engines. Only build high quality links to your site and make sure that they're relevant so that you don't get seen as an link spammer. Post articles, make blogs, build websites, and link to your website.